Invalidating childhood environments in anorexia and bulimia nervosa
However, they may feel overwhelmed by negative emotions ("anxiety, depression, guilt/shame, worry, anger, etc."), experiencing intense grief instead of sadness, shame and humiliation instead of mild embarrassment, rage instead of annoyance, and panic instead of nervousness.
This can be harmful to people with BPD, since negative emotions alert people to the presence of a problematic situation and move them to address it which the person with BPD would normally be aware of only to cause further distress.
Bulimia typically involves periods of uncontrollable binging followed by compensatory behaviour including vomiting, laxative abuse and excessive exercise. Self-liking and self-competence: Relationship of symptoms to anorexia nervosa.
Both anorexics and bulimics form self-judgments according to their perceived body weight and shape (American Psychological Association, 1994).
Overall, the features of BPD include unusually intense sensitivity in relationships with others, difficulty regulating emotions, and impulsivity.
Other symptoms may include feeling unsure of one's personal identity, morals, and values; having paranoid thoughts when feeling stressed; dissociation and depersonalization; and, in moderate to severe cases, stress-induced breaks with reality or psychotic episodes.
Eating disorders are complex conditions and most commonly refer to anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN).
Anorexia typically involves intense fears of weight gain, disturbed menstruation, refusal to maintain normal weight, distorted body shape perception and denial of extremely low weight.
In addition to poor global and body self-esteem, individuals with ED symptom appear to experience disturbed relational self-esteem. (2005) noted that individuals with ED symptoms recorded greater levels of relational self-contempt, or poor self-liking. Dysregulated eating and distress: examining the specific role of negative urgency in a clinical sample. Suppressing inner experiences and habitually avoiding distressing scenarios was found to be early experiences of psychological abuse and emotional invalidation. Childhood emotional invalidation and adult psychological distress: the mediating role of emotional inhibition. In a small study, prior experience of emotional invalidation, particularly from fathers, was more common in bulimics than anorexics and was associated with more disturbed symptoms including vomiting and intense exercise (Haslam, Mountford, Meyer & Wallace, 2007). Specificity of self-concept disturbances in eating disorders. A further repercussion of emotional invalidation is impaired self-esteem. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 35, 204-210. Self-esteem describes the opinion an individual holds about how worthy the self is. Karatzias, T., Chouliara, Z., Power, K., Collin, P., Yellowlees, A., & Grierson, D. General psychopathology in anorexia nervosa: The role of psychosocial factors.